August 14, 2017

Teen Binge Drinking Affects Cognitive Skills

Drinking alcohol, is a well-engrained and long-standing social habit in many countries around the world, even though the fact that alcohol has an impact on one's health is largely established, especially when it comes to heavy drinking.

In particular, adolescents are known to enjoy their drinking games and nights-out without worrying much about the effects alcohol can have on their health. In fact, drinking in high quantities is common during adolescence with nearly 25% of high school seniors in the US reporting that they got drunk in the last 30 days.

The effects of heavy drinking among young people on the brain have been looked at closely in a mini review published in Frontiers in Psychology by Anita Cservenka, Assistant Professor at Oregon State University et.al.

Harmful Effects of Binge Drinking

"Adolescence is a time when the brain still matures including not only biological development but also maturation of psychosocial behaviours. Given the increase of binge and heavy drinking in young people, understanding the effects of consuming large quantities of alcohol on neural development and the impact on cognitive skills is very important" says Assistant Professor Cservenka.

Binge or heavy episodic drinking means four or more standard drinks within a two-hour drinking session for females, five or more drinks for males. The review highlights existing research that examines the harmful effects of such drinking habits with a view to inform future studies.

"We looked at six areas to determine the deleterious impact of heavy drinking on brain response, namely: response inhibition, working memory, verbal learning and memory, decision making and reward processing, alcohol cue reactivity, and socio-cognitive/socio-emotional processing" explains Assistant Professor Cservenka.

Affects Memory, Learning Skills

The review establishes that binge drinking among young people is associated with a thinning or reduction of areas of the brain that play a key role in memory, attention, language, awareness and consciousness, which include cortical and subcortical structures. Taking learning and memory as an example, studies have shown that heavy drinking leads to a deficit in the ability of young people to learn novel words, which has been linked to changes in brain activity.

Looking to the future, "these brain alterations, as a result of heavy alcohol use during adolescence and young adulthood, could result in increased risk of developing an alcohol use disorder later on in life. It is therefore important to continue raising awareness of the risks of binge drinking and to promote future research in this area. Our review provides a useful basis to determine the areas that require further attention." concludes Assistant Professor Cservenka.

Posted by Webmaster at 03:35 AM

August 13, 2017

Video Games Influence Teens to Drink, Smoke

Images and references to alcohol and tobacco in popular video games may be influencing teens who play the games and the age restriction system is not working, according to a new study.

Experts from the UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies at The University of Nottingham have carried out the first ever analysis of best-selling video games to find out the extent to which the games include this content and to assess the link between playing the games and drinking and smoking behaviour.

Twice as Likely to Smoke, Drink Alcohol

They found that teenagers who play video games featuring alcohol and tobacco references appeared to be directly influenced because they were twice as likely to have tried smoking or drinking themselves.

The research examined the content of 32 UK best-selling video games of 2012/2013 and carried out a large online survey of adolescents playing games with alcohol and tobacco content. An analysis of 'cut scenes' uploaded by gamers to YouTube from the five most popular games was also carried out. All the games studied were from the genres of stealth, action adventure, open world, shooter and survival/horror because they involve avatars that look and act like real people.

44% of Video Games Contain Alcohol, Tobacco

The study, published in the journal Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, found alcohol and tobacco content in 44% of the most popular video games. They also found this content was not reported by the official regulator, the Pan-European Games Information (PEGI) system which informs the Video Standards Council age ratings that help parents decide whether game content is suitable for their children.

The researchers used YouGov survey tools to ask 1,094 UK adolescents aged 11-17 whether they had played any of the most popular video games identified as containing either tobacco or alcohol imagery. They were also asked whether and to what extent they smoked or drank alcohol. The study found that adolescents who had played at least one game with tobacco or alcohol content were twice as likely to have tried smoking or consumed alcohol themselves.

Grand Theft Auto, Black Ops

Out of the top five most popular games, Grand Theft Auto V & VI contained the highest level of alcohol and smoking content using fictitious brands only. The other top games containing these references were Call of Duty:Black Ops II, Call of Duty:Modern Warfare 3 and Assassin's Creed III. There was no electronic cigarette content.

Psychologist Dr Joanne Cranwell from the UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies, said "Although around 54% of UK adolescents play video games online, parental concern over exposure to inappropriate content while playing video games seems to be lower than for other media, like movies for example. While 80% of children aged 10-15 play packaged or online video games with an age rating higher than their age, more than half of British parents are unaware of the harmful content this exposes them to.

Descriptors Are Not Working

"Video games are clearly attractive to adolescents regardless of age classification. It appears that official PEGI content descriptors are failing to restrict youth access to age inappropriate content. We think that the PEGI system needs to include both alcohol and tobacco in their content descriptors. Also, game developers could be offered incentives to reduce the amount of smoking and drinking in their games or to at least reference smoking and drinking on their packaging and websites.

"As a child protection method it is naïve for both the games industry and the Interactive Software Federation of Europe, who regulate the PEGI system, to rely on age ratings alone. Future research should focus on identifying the levels of exposure in terms of dose that youth gamers are exposed to during actual gameplay and the effects of this on long- term alcohol and smoking behaviour."

Posted by Webmaster at 08:08 PM

Brain Activity Predicts Teen Heavy Drinking

Heavy drinking is known to affect teenagers' developing brains, but certain patterns of brain activity may also help predict which kids are at risk of becoming problem drinkers, according to a study in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs.

Using special MRI scans, researchers looked at 40 12- to 16-year-olds who had not started drinking yet, then followed them for about 3 years and scanned them again. Half of the teens started to drink alcohol fairly heavily during this interval.

The investigators found that kids who had initially showed less activation in certain brain areas were at greater risk for becoming heavy drinkers in the next three years.

Drinking Affects Brain Activity

Then once the teens started drinking, their brain activity looked like the heavy drinkers' in the other studies – that is, their brains showed more activity as they tried to perform memory tests. This pattern of heavy drinking typically included episodes of having four or more drinks on an occasion for females and five or more drinks for males.

"That's the opposite of what you'd expect, because their brains should be getting more efficient as they get older," said lead researcher Lindsay M. Squeglia, Ph.D., of the University of California, San Diego.

The findings add to evidence that heavy drinking has consequences for teenagers' developing brains. But they also add a new layer: there may be brain activity patterns that predict which kids are at increased risk for heavy drinking.

"It's interesting because it suggests there might be some pre-existing vulnerability," Squeglia said.

Clues to Problem Drinking

That doesn't mean teenagers are going to start having MRI scans of their brains to see which ones might start drinking. But the findings do give clues into the biological origins of kids' problem drinking.

These findings also reinforce the message that heavy drinking may affect young people's brains right at the time when they need to be working efficiently.

"You're learning to drive, you're getting ready for college. This is a really important time of your life for cognitive development," Squeglia said. She noted that all of the study participants were healthy, well-functioning kids. It's possible that teens with certain disorders -- like depression or ADHD -- might show greater effects from heavy drinking.

Posted by Webmaster at 07:26 PM

Ads Play Role in Underage Drinking

Minors who were familiar with television alcohol advertisements were more likely to have tried alcoholic beverages and binge drink than those who could not recall seeing such ads, according to a study presented at the Pediatric Academic Societies (PAS) annual meeting in Boston.

"Underage drinking remains an important health risk in the U.S.," said lead author Susanne E. Tanski, MD, MPH, FAAP, assistant professor in the Department of Pediatrics at Children's Hospital at Dartmouth, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center. "In this study, we have shown a link between recognition of nationally televised alcohol advertisements and underage drinking initiation and heavier use patterns."

Promoting Risky Behaviors

Previous research by Dr. Tanski and her colleagues showed an association between seeing smoking and drinking in movies and adolescents engaging in these risky behaviors. This study expanded on that research by exploring whether there is an association between young people's exposure to television alcohol advertising and substance use.

The researchers surveyed a national sample of 2,541 youths ages 15 to 20 years. Participants were asked about their age, gender, race, if their friends drank, if their parents drank, whether they had a favorite alcohol ad and whether they owned alcohol-branded merchandise. They also were asked questions to assess whether they engaged in "sensation-seeking" behavior.

Participants then were shown 20 still images selected from television ads for the top beer and spirit alcohol brands that aired on national television in the year before the survey as well as 20 ads for fast-food restaurants. The images were digitally edited to remove the brands and logos. Individuals were asked if they remembered seeing the ad, if they liked the ad and if they knew the product or restaurant being advertised.

TV Ads and Teens

Results showed that 59 percent of underage youths previously drank alcohol. Of those who drank, 49 percent binge drank (had more than six drinks in a row) at least once in the past year.

Familiarity with TV alcohol advertising was significantly higher for drinkers than for non-drinkers. Other factors linked with drinking alcohol included older age, seeing alcohol in movies, having a favorite alcohol ad, having greater propensity for sensation seeking, having friends who drink alcohol, and having parents who drink alcohol at least weekly.

Among those who drank alcohol, familiarity with TV alcohol advertising was linked with greater alcohol use and binge drinking. Other factors linked with more hazardous drinking included owning alcohol-branded merchandise, having a favorite alcohol ad, older age, male gender, sensation seeking and friend drinking.

More Strict Standards Needed?

Familiarity with fast-food TV advertising was not linked to drinking behavior, suggesting that the relationship between alcohol ad familiarity and drinking is specific and not due to overall familiarity with advertising, Dr. Tanski said.

"At present, the alcohol industry employs voluntary standards to direct their advertising to audiences comprised of adults of legal drinking age," Dr. Tanski said. "Our findings of high levels of familiarity with alcohol ads demonstrate that underage youth still frequently see these ads. While this study cannot determine which came first — the exposure to advertising or the drinking behavior — it does suggest that alcohol advertising may play a role in underage drinking, and the standards for alcohol ad placement perhaps should be more strict."

Posted by Webmaster at 07:03 PM

Adult-supervised Teen Drinking Can Backfire

Allowing adolescents to drink alcohol under adult supervision does not appear to teach responsible drinking as teens get older. In fact, such a "harm-minimization" approach may actually lead to more drinking and alcohol-related consequences, according to a study in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs.

"Kids need parents to be parents and not drinking buddies," according to the study's lead researcher, Barbara J. McMorris, Ph.D., of the School of Nursing at the University of Minnesota. Allowing adolescents to drink with adults present but not when unsupervised may send mixed signals. "Adults need to be clear about what messages they are sending."

Drinking Responsibly?

In general, parents tend to take one of two approaches toward teen drinking. Some allow their adolescent children to consume alcohol in small amounts on occasion if an adult is present. The thinking is that teens will learn to drink responsibly if introduced to alcohol slowly in a controlled environment. This has been the predominant approach in many countries, including Australia.

A second approach is one of "zero tolerance" for youth drinking, meaning that teens should not be allowed to drink alcohol under any circumstances. This less permissive position is predominant in the United States, with local laws and national policies often advocating total abstinence for adolescents.

Alcohol-Related Consequences

To test how these different approaches are related to teen drinking, McMorris and colleagues from the Centre for Adolescent Health in Melbourne, Australia, and the Social Development Research Group in Seattle surveyed more than 1,900 seventh graders. About half were from Victoria, Australia; the rest were from Washington State. From seventh to ninth grade, investigators asked the youths about such factors as alcohol use, problems they had as a result of alcohol consumption, and how often had they consumed alcohol with an adult present.

By eighth grade, about 67% of Victorian youths had consumed alcohol with an adult present, as did 35% of those in Washington State, reflecting general cultural attitudes. In ninth grade, 36% of Australian teens compared with 21% of American teens had experienced alcohol-related consequences, such as not being able to stop drinking, getting into fights, or having blackouts. However, regardless of whether they were from Australia or the United States, youths who were allowed to drink with an adult present had increased levels of alcohol use and were more likely to have experienced harmful consequences by the ninth grade.

The researchers suggest that allowing adolescents to drink with adults present may act to encourage alcohol consumption. According to the authors, their results suggest that parents adopt a "no-use" policy for young adolescents. "Kids need black and white messages early on," says McMorris. "Such messages will help reinforce limits as teens get older and opportunities to drink increase."

Alcohol Available in the Home

In a related study in the May issue of JSAD, researchers from The Netherlands found that, among 500 12- to -15-year olds, the only parenting factor related to adolescent drinking was the amount of alcohol available in the home. In fact, the amount of alcohol parents themselves drank was not a factor in adolescent drinking. These results suggest that parents should only keep alcohol where it is inaccessible to teens. In addition, parents should "set strict rules regarding alcohol use, particularly when a total absence of alcoholic drinks at home is not feasible," according to lead researcher Regina van den Eijnden, Ph.D., of Utrecht University in The Netherlands.

"Both studies show that parents matter," McMorris concludes. "Despite the fact that peers and friends become important influences as adolescents get older, parents still have a big impact."

Posted by Webmaster at 11:56 AM

Many Kids Get Their Alcohol at Home

A study by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) indicates that 5.9 percent of adolescents aged 12 to 14 drank alcohol in the past month and that the vast majority of them (93.4 percent) received their alcohol for free the last time they drank.

About 317,000 (44.8 percent) 12 to 14 year olds who drank in the past month received their alcohol for free from their family or at home. This includes 15.7 percent (or an estimated 111,000) who were provided alcohol for free by their parents or guardians.

Increased Risk for Alcoholism



"People who begin drinking alcohol before the age of 15 are six times more likely than those who start at age 21 and older to develop alcohol problems. Parents and other adults need to be aware that providing alcohol to children can expose them to an increased risk for alcohol abuse and set them on a path with increased potential for addiction," said SAMHSA Administrator Pamela S. Hyde, J.D.

SAMHSA Data Spotlight: Young Alcohol Users Often Get Alcohol from Family or Home is based on the combined data from SAMHSA’s 2006 to 2009 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) and involves responses from more than 44,000 respondents ages 12 to 14.

NSDUH is a primary source of information on national use of tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs (including non-medical use of prescription drugs) and mental health in the United States. The survey is part of the agency’s strategic initiative on behavioral health data, quality and outcomes.

Posted by Webmaster at 11:44 AM

ER Teen Pep Talk Can Reduce Drinking, Violence

A brief, motivational talk in the emergency room reduced by half the chances that teenagers would experience peer violence or problems due to drinking, according to a study published in a theme issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association. The special issue on violence and human rights includes the work of University of Michigan Health System researchers who immersed themselves at the Hurley Medical Center emergency department, in Flint, Mich., for three years.

Researchers offered help to 726 adolescents, ages 14-18, who reported they experienced aggression or had a drink of beer, wine or liquor at least two or three times in the past year.

Reduction in Aggression


A one-on-one talk with a therapist resulted in a 34 percent reduction in peer aggression. Teens who received only a brochure had a 16 percent drop in aggression over the next three months.

The study showed similar drops in alcohol misuse after teens heard prevention messages delivered by a therapist or while using a role-playing computer program.

"Violence and alcohol use are preventable behaviors and the emergency department can be a key location for reaching high-risk teenagers," says senior author Rebecca Cunningham, M.D., an emergency room physician and director of the University of Michigan Injury Research Center.

Violence and injuries are the leading causes of deaths among adolescents in the United States and the incidents are often fueled by alcohol. The U-M study showed ED interventions can also reduce alcohol-related problems by as much as 32 percent for six months.

The talks with teens were more complex than a parent talking to a child about the dangers of drinking and how to avoid peer pressure.

"Therapists used motivational interviewing which is well-suited for adolescent development," says study lead author Maureen Walton, M.P.H., Ph.D., research associate professor in the U-M Department of Psychiatry, Addiction Research Center. "It doesn’t preach or tell teens what to do, but allows adolescents to weigh the pros and cons of their choices in reference to their goals."

The therapists’ talks with teens also included role play exercises and tools to cope with risky situations that involve drinking or violence and referrals to community services.

Motivational Interviewing


"Most of the adolescents had high aspirations – they wanted to go to college, be a good role model for their younger siblings. They didn’t want to make the mistakes they saw happening around them," Walton explains. "We talked to them about the discrepancies between their behavior and what they wanted to do with their lives."

Motivational Interviewing, with proper training, can be used effectively by healthcare providers as well those without a professional healthcare background. Study co-author Stephen T. Chermack, Ph.D, a clinical psychologist and addiction specialist at the U-M Health System and the VA Healthcare System in Ann Arbor, is a member of the Motivational Interviewing Network of Trainers (MINT).

Adolescents in the study reported to the emergency department at Hurley Medical Center between noon and 11 p.m., during the three-year period, September 2006 to September 2009.

All patients completed computerized screening questions regarding alcohol use and violence and were randomized into three groups: a control group receiving a brochure, or one of two groups receiving a 35-minute brief intervention delivered by a computer or a therapist in the emergency room.

Authors say the computer screening worked well with teenagers because of their comfort with using technology. The computer program included animated role playing such as how to handle drinking and driving and conflicts with peers.

High-Risk Youth in the ER


"The study tells us that technology can aid in assisting high-risk youth in busy clinical settings, as well as deliver important prevention messages," says Cunningham who is also an associate professor of emergency medicine at the U-M Medical School and associate professor of health behavior & health education at the U-M School of Public Health. "Emergency staff are busy and not all hospitals have the resource of a social worker or therapist present at all times in the emergency department."

The ED can be a prime location for reaching high-risk teenagers since many may skip school, consider themselves too old to go to a pediatrician, yet often do not have a primary care doctor.

"We see the consequences our patients face from violence," says Cunningham who is part of the team of U-M physicians who work in the Flint emergency department.

"But in addition to treating the immediate wounds from violence, the emergency department can offer opportunities to help the teens we see prevent future problems with alcohol and violence."

Posted by Webmaster at 10:29 AM

Parenting Style Can Prevent Binge Drinking

Parents may be surprised, even disappointed, to find out they don’t influence whether their teen tries alcohol. But now for some good news: Parenting style strongly and directly affects teens when it comes to heavy drinking – defined as having five or more drinks in a row – according to a new Brigham Young University study.

The researchers surveyed nearly 5,000 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 19 about their drinking habits and their relationship with their parents. Specifically, they examined parents’ levels of accountability – knowing where they spend their time and with whom – and the warmth they share with their kids.

Less Likely to Binge Drink

Here’s what they found:

  • The teens least prone to heavy drinking had parents who scored high on both accountability and warmth.

  • So-called “indulgent” parents, those low on accountability and high on warmth, nearly tripled the risk of their teen participating in heavy drinking.

  • “Strict” parents – high on accountability and low on warmth – more than doubled their teen’s risk of heavy drinking.

Prior research on parenting style and teen drinking was a mixed bag, showing modest influence at best. Unlike previous research, this study distinguished between any alcohol consumption and heavy drinking.

“While parents didn’t have much of an effect on whether their teens tried alcohol, they can have a significant impact on the more dangerous type of drinking,” said Stephen Bahr, a professor in BYU’s College of Family, Home and Social Sciences.

Bahr, along with co-author John Hoffmann, will publish the study in the July issue of the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs.

The statistical analysis also showed that religious teens were significantly less likely to drink any alcohol. The effect of religiosity mirrors findings from this 2008 study Bahr and Hoffmann conducted on teens' marijuana use.

Non-Drinking Friends

Not surprisingly, a teen’s peers play an important role on whether a teen drinks. The BYU researchers note that teens in this new study were more likely to have non-drinking friends if their parents scored high on warmth and accountability.

“The adolescent period is kind of a transitional period and parents sometimes have a hard time navigating that,” Bahr said. “Although peers are very important, it’s not true that parents have no influence.”

For parents, the takeaway is this:

“Realize you need to have both accountability and support in your relationship with your adolescent,” Hoffmann said. “Make sure that it’s not just about controlling their behavior – you need to combine knowing how they spend their time away from home with a warm, loving relationship.”

Posted by Webmaster at 10:20 AM

Watching R-Rated Movies Linked to Early Drinking

Middle-school children whose parents restrict access to R-rated movies are substantially less likely to start drinking than their peers who are allowed to see such films, a new study suggests. In a study of nearly 3,600 New England middle school students, researchers found that among kids who said their parents never allowed them to watch R movies, few took up drinking over the next couple years.

R-Rated Movies and Alcohol

Of that group, 3 percent said they had started drinking when questioned 13 to 26 months after the initial survey. That compared with 19 percent of their peers who'd said their parents "sometimes" let them see R-rated films, and one-quarter of students who'd said their parents allowed such movies "all the time."

The researchers say the findings, reported in the May issue of the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, underscore the importance of parents paying close attention to their children's media exposure.

"We think this is a very important aspect of parenting, and one that is often overlooked," said Dr. James D. Sargent, a professor of pediatrics at Dartmouth Medical School in Hanover, New Hampshire.

Exposure to Adult Content

The current findings build on evidence linking children's exposure to R-rated movies and onscreen "adult" content in general not only to early drinking but also to early smoking and kids' likelihood of having sex or behaving violently.

"The research to date suggests that keeping kids from R-rated movies can help keep them from drinking, smoking and doing a lot of other things that parents don't want them to do," Sargent said.

He pointed out that it could be argued that parents who restrict access to R movies are simply more careful in general -- keeping tabs on their children's friends or making sure their kids have no access to alcohol at home, for instance. However, Sargent and his colleagues accounted for this in the current study by asking students questions that gauge "authoritative parenting" -- which gauges the adolescent's perception of parental responsiveness (ability to respond to the adolescent's point of view) and demandingness (ability to set and enforce limits).

The researchers found that, even with such factors considered, exposure to R-rated movies was still linked to the likelihood of early drinking.

Drinking in R-Rated Movies

Ninety percent of R-rated films have depictions of drinking, and that may be one reason that middle-schoolers who see the films are more vulnerable to early drinking. But Sargent said that the R-rated movie effect goes beyond that. Other research suggests that children who see R-rated movies become more prone to "sensation seeking" and risk taking. "We think seeing the adult content actually changes their personality," Sargent said.

The bottom line, according to the researcher, is that parents should restrict their kids from seeing R-rated films. But he also pointed out that PG-13 movies, as well as many TV shows, often portray drinking and other adult situations -- and that supports limiting children's media time in general.

The American Academy of Pediatrics currently recommends that children watch no more than one to two hours of "quality" media, including movies, TV and videos, each day.

Posted by Webmaster at 09:16 AM

Adolescent Drinking Adds to Breast Cancer Risk

Girls and young women who drink alcohol increase their risk of benign (noncancerous) breast disease, says a study by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and Harvard University. Benign breast disease increases the risk for developing breast cancer.

"Our study clearly showed that the risk of benign breast disease increased with the amount of alcohol consumed in this age group," says Graham Colditz, MD, DrPH, associate director of prevention and control at the Siteman Cancer Center at Washington University School of Medicine and Barnes-Jewish Hospital. "The study is an indication that alcohol should be limited in adolescence and early adult years and further focuses our attention on these years as key to preventing breast cancer later in life."

Alcohol and Breast Cancer

The study was published in the journal Pediatrics.

About 80 percent of breast lumps are benign. But these benign breast lesions can be a step in a pathway leading from normal breast tissue to invasive breast cancer, so the condition is an important marker of breast cancer risk, Colditz indicates.

The researchers studied girls aged 9 to 15 years at the study's start and followed them using health surveys from 1996 to 2007. A total of 6,899 participants reported on their alcohol consumption and whether they had ever been diagnosed with benign breast disease. The participants were part of the Growing Up Today Study of more than 9,000 girls from all 50 states who are daughters of participants in the Nurses' Health Study II, one of the largest and longest-running investigations of factors that influence women's health.

The More Alcohol the Greater the Risk

The study showed that the more alcohol consumed, the more likely the participants were to have benign breast disease. Girls and young women who drank six or seven days a week were 5.5 times more likely to have benign breast disease than those who didn't drink or who had less than one drink per week. Participants who reported drinking three to five days per week had three times the risk.

The participants who were diagnosed with benign breast disease on average drank more often, drank more on each occasion and had an average daily consumption that was two times that of those who did not have benign breast disease. They also had more episodes of binge drinking.

Drinking Increases Breast Cancer Risks

The study is unique because it asked about alcohol intake while participants were adolescents instead of asking them to recall many years later how often they drank.

"We know from many other studies of adult women that alcohol intake later in life increases breast cancer risk," Colditz says. "But many women begin drinking alcohol as adolescents right at the time in which breast tissue is going through stages of rapid proliferation. So we wanted to see if the effect of alcohol on breast cancer risk was operative in this younger group."

The results of this study provide more evidence that steps can be taken to prevent breast cancer.

"There's growing evidence that physical activity can lower breast cancer risk," Colditz says. "We also know that diet and weight are important factors. Now it is clear that drinking habits throughout life affect breast cancer risk, as well."

Posted by Webmaster at 09:09 AM